Which are the world's most highly-cited scientific papers of all time?

Fifty years ago, Eugene Garfield published the Science Citation Index (SCI), the first systematic effort to track citations in the scientific literature. Nature’s news team wondered which were the most highly-cited papers of all time, so asked Thomson Reuters and Google for their top 100. They are not what you might think. Watson and Crick on DNA structure misses out, along with many other historic discoveries. Instead, methods and software papers dominate the lists.

Find out more at nature.com/top100



The discovery of high-temperature superconductors, the determination of DNA’s double-helix structure, the first observations that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating — all of these breakthroughs won Nobel prizes and international acclaim. Yet none of the papers that announced them comes anywhere close to ranking among the 100 most highly cited papers of all time.

It takes a staggering 12,119 citations to rank in the top 100 — and that many of the world’s most famous papers do not make the cut.

The most cited work in history, for example, is a 1951 paper describing an assay to determine the amount of protein in a solution. It has now gathered more than 305,000 citations — a recognition that always puzzled its lead author...

Top medicine articles for October 2014

A collection of some interesting medical articles published recently:

Once-weekly insulin shot - Novo Nordisk's next idea http://buff.ly/1tiUC6v

How Lufthansa Cares for Passengers' Medical Needs http://buff.ly/1pK4ILC

How scammers trick your mind - they repeatedly use one or more of the same 7 persuasion principles. Scammers have used these principles for centuries. For instance, the Nigerian email scam might seem the product of the digital age, but a version of it existed in 16th Century Europe. http://buff.ly/1rIf4jo -- Understanding scam victims: 7 principles for systems security (University of Cambridge report) - PDF http://buff.ly/1uH14df

The prevalence of celiac disease in screening studies is 0.5 to 1%. The serologic test of choice for celiac is IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase - specific (94%), and sensitive (97%) http://buff.ly/1CIEr9x

Why Are Americans So Fascinated With Extreme Fitness? - NYTimes.com http://nyti.ms/1EVWdZ5

History of rheumatology http://bit.ly/1EVWgnC

Why exercise boosts IQ http://buff.ly/1sJqqXp

Cleveland Clinic offers patients virtual visits in walk-in kiosks in the grocery store http://buff.ly/1xQVhjW

3 new antibiotics for skin infections: dalbavancin (Dalvance), tedizolid (Sivextro), oritavancin (Orbactiv) http://buff.ly/1vzabfm

Shift workers and people who get jet lag may gain weight because they disturb their "inside garden" (gut microbes) http://buff.ly/1vzaJSs

Exercise May Help Fight Depression – But low mood can be a barrier to physical activity http://buff.ly/1ps8Elj

When we are able to diagnose rare diseases with smartphones - BBC http://buff.ly/1vzb4Va -- Ebola only has 5 genes

The enduring enigma of Alan Turing : The Lancet http://buff.ly/1vzbevI

A renaissance in surgery - A new and welcome vigour is evident in surgery, writes The Lancet http://buff.ly/1vzbj2r

Robotic surgery: where are we now? : The Lancet http://buff.ly/1ps8Ukv

The articles were selected from Twitter and my RSS subscriptions. Please feel free to send suggestions for articles to clinicalcases AT gmail.com and you will receive acknowledgement in the next edition of this publication.

Is math discovered or invented? TED-Ed video

Would mathematics exist if people didn't? Did we create mathematical concepts to help us understand the world around us, or is math the native language of the universe itself? Jeff Dekofsky traces some famous arguments in this ancient and hotly debated question.

Top medicine articles for October 2014

A collection of some interesting medical articles published recently:

Hand-grip strength is an amazingly good predictor of future rates of mortality and morbidity, or sickness http://buff.ly/1BK759H -- Hand grip strength should be considered as a vital sign useful for screening middle-aged and older adults http://buff.ly/1DglFaI -- Measuring hand-grip strength is very simple and cheap. Every primary care doctor should have a dynamometer in their office. At every visit, the doctor could check grip strength for older patients. If someone was in the 45th percentile for their age and the measurements were stable, great. But if that person suddenly dropped to the 25th percentile, then that’s a sign that the doctor should look seriously at what might be going on.

Full fat milk (3%) cut the risk of getting diabetes type 2 by 20% http://buff.ly/1m9ghRL

Urine Test for Diagnosis of HPV Works Well (not yet available in practice) http://bit.ly/1pnswES

Weekly Injectable Drug for DM2 Approved -Trulicity (dulaglutide) a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. http://bit.ly/1pnsyNh

FDA approved for treating fibromyalgia: pregabalin (Lyrica), duloxetine (Cymbalta), milnacipran (Savella) http://reut.rs/1pnsWet

Human Body, According to Venture Capitalists - which body systems stand to benefit most from their decisions - WSJ http://bit.ly/1pntgdp

Sodium conundrum: 9 in 10 U.S. children eat too much salt http://buff.ly/1wdlXx5

With 23andMe, this biologist gave his parents the gift of divorce http://bit.ly/1uvevub

People who spend more time preparing and cooking meals are more likely to have healthier diets http://buff.ly/1DTvZG4

Walking is the superfood of fitness, experts say -- “Walking is a superfood. It’s the defining movement of a human". “Actively sedentary is a new category of people who are fit for one hour but sitting around the rest of the day," Bowman said. “You can’t offset 10 hours of stillness with one hour of exercise.” http://buff.ly/1BxXEbA -- Exercise: “If you’re going to pick one thing, research says it should be walking”

Acupuncture May Not Help Chronic Knee Pain after all http://buff.ly/ZpQw5B

Epic holds the health records of nearly half of all Americans http://buff.ly/ZpRcIc

Gene affects your taste for bitter flavors. People who aren't as sensitive eat 200 more servings of vegetables/year http://buff.ly/YSQRMT

Ebola drug ZMapp is produced in the leaves of tobacco plants. 10 years from now, plants might be the dominant vaccine-production system http://buff.ly/1vzaN4f

The articles were selected from Twitter and my RSS subscriptions. Please feel free to send suggestions for articles to clinicalcases AT gmail.com and you will receive acknowledgement in the next edition of this publication.

Multi-dose flu shot has only 25 mcg of mercury - most commercial fish contain 23 mcg of mercury per 8 ounces of fish

Multi-dose flu shot has only 25 mcg of mercury - most commercial fish contain 23 mcg of mercury per 8 ounces of fish http://buff.ly/11CTRPw

Are multi-dose vials less expensive?

Economics are a bit complicated due to wastage with multiple vials:

Single versus multi-dose vaccine vials: an economic computational model
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20566395

Most of the Western world, apart from the US, has moved on to single vials:
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/733986

Whenever possible, CDC recommends that single-use vials be used and that multi-dose vials of medication be assigned to a single patient to reduce the risk of disease transmission (http://www.cdc.gov/injectionsafety/patients/syringeReuse_faqs.html).

Where to get a thimerosal/mercury-free flu shot?

Many local Costco stores carry only single vials and the cost is $14.99 if no insurance is used. The availability of additional options may improve immunization rates.

Search for a Costco pharmacy near you here, and call them to verify availability: Warehouse Locations - Costco: www.costco.com/warehouse/locator.aspx

Personal Flu Stories - CDC:



Each year in the US, nearly 20,000 children under age 5 are hospitalized due to flu-related complications. CDC recommends that children aged six months through 18 years old get a flu vaccination. Moving personal stories help parents and caregivers learn about the dangers of influenza to children and the benefits of vaccination.

Image source: Influenza virus, Wikipedia, public domain.
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